Paper – I


Public Administration Syllabus & Topic-Wise question analysis for Main Examination


Paper – I: Administrative theory

  1. Introduction: Meaning, scope and significance of Public Administration; Wilson’s vision of Public Administration; Evolution of the discipline and its present status; New Public Administration; Public Choice Approach; Chal­lenges of Liberalization, Privatization, Globalization; Good Governance: concept and application; New Public Management.


12 Marks Question

2012:  (a) ‘On a more sophisticated plane public choice is concerned with “Pareto optimality”, or at least with “Pareto improvements”.’ Comment.


20 Marks Question:

2011: E-governance is the final arrival of Max Weber’s ‘iron cage of rationality’. Discuss.

2010: ‘A crisis of credibility’ in the administrative system can be overcome only by ‘reinventing government’. Comment.

2010: Do you think that there is a sort of paradox between e-Governance and good governance? Explain fully.

2010: “The market has become the new icon of developmentalism.” Comment.

2010: “New Public Management is dead; long live digital era of governance.” Comment.

2010: “Not merely governance but good governance is the key factor in achieving the United Nations Millennium Goals (2000).” Explain.

2009: “The Field of Public Administration is a field of business.” (Woodrow Wil­son)

2009: “New Public Administration is ………. a revolution or radicalism in words, and (at best) status -quo in skills or technologies.”

2008: Calling Woodrow Wilson, the father of Public Administration is doing injus­tice to equally or even more eminent contributions made prior to him. Comment.

2007: “Public and Private Administrations are two species of the same genus, but they also have special values and techniques of their own.”Comment.

2006: If public administration is to play a major legitimizing role in governing our complex society, it needs to be more fully conceptualized. Discuss.

2005: “Administrative question are not political questions.” Discuss.

Discuss the impact of privatisation on public administration with special reference to: 20 × 3 = 60

(a) the issue of users must pay

(b) the Public Private Partnership

(c) Outsourcing technique

2003: 1. (a) “The advent of the concept of “roll back of the state” since the nineteen eighties has been altering the role of Public Administration but certainly not diminishing its central place in human society.” Discuss.

2003: 1. (c) “The ‘New Public Management’ (NPM) is an incarnation of a new model of public sector management in response of the challenges of liberalization, international competitiveness and technological changes.” Explain.

(a) “Administrative question are not political questions.” Discuss.

2002: 1. (a) “Though there at certain’ points of similarity between public and private administration yet no private organization can ever be exactly the same as a public one.”- Examine.


30 Marks Question:

2012:2.(a) Flow would you trace the development of Public Administration in terms of different paradigms from the politics/administration dichotomy of 1900-1926 to the rise of Public Administration as Public Administration after the formation of the National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration (NASPAA) in the USA in 1970 ?

2011: In a evolution of the discipline of Public Administration, Minnow brook Conference I, II and III reflect the discipline’s reconceptualisation and its changing values. Elucidate.

60 Marks Question

2009: It is said that “the perspective of public administration, developed over a century, with a tradition of management of Public institution and services has- received a jolt from the novelty of New Public Management”. Bring out the core values, approaches and assumptions of traditional public admin­istration and show how the new, New Public Management has attempted to change or retain them, and to what extent.

2008: “In the last two decades, almost all countries of the world have experienced transformations in their administrative systems.” Explain this phenom­enon with examples from the developed and the developing nations in the context of New Public Management Movement.

2003: 2. Give an account of major landmarks in the growth of the discipline of Public Administration in the 20th century. What are the possible trends in its growth in the first decade of 21st century?

2002: 2. Describe the evolution of the discipline of public administration with special emphasis on post 1970 developments.


  1. Administrative Thought: Scientific Management and Scientific Manage­ment movement; Classical Theory; Weber’s bureaucratic model – its cri­tique and post-Weberian Developments; Dynamic Administration (Mary Parker Follett); Human Relations School (Elton Mayo and others); Func­tions of the Executive (C.I. Barnard); Simon’s decision-making theory; Par­ticipative Management (R. Likert, C.Argyris, D. McGregor).

12 Marks Question:

2012: 1. (b) `In the canonization of this abstract idea of `Staatsraison’ are inseparably woven the sure instincts of the bureaucracy for the conditions which preserve its own power in the State’ [Weber]. Explain.

60 Marks Question

2009: From Woodrow Wilson to Herbert Simon most writers on public administra­tion have taken the achievement of efficiency as the central objective. Justify the statement with reference to the work of major writers.

2007: Analyze McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y. Do you agree with the view that with every passing year, McGregor’s message has become more rel­evant and more important? Substantiate your answer.

2006: Critically examine the Classical Science of Administration with special reference to its criticism by Dwight Waldo and Robert Dahl.

30 Marks Question

2012: 2. (b) (i) In what respects is Taylor’s ‘Scientific Management’ or classical motivational theory different from the classical organizational theory expounded by Gulick, Urwick etc ? 15

(ii) What light does Antonio Gramsci’s critique of Taylorism throw on its socio-psychological underpinnings?

2009: Consider the statement below:

  1. i) “Technically, the bureaucracy represents the purest type of legal rational authority”
  2. ii) “Bureaucracy does not represent the only type of legal authority”.

Identify the theoretical context and analyze the above Statements.

20 Marks Question

2009: “Taylor’s contribution was not a set of general principles for organizing work efficiency, but a set of operating procedures that could be employed in each concrete situation to secure their application.”

2009: “The Barnard – Simon Theory of organization is essentially a theory of motivation.”

2008: “Mary Parker Follett” was far ahead of her times.” Discuss

2007: “Taylor’s scientific management ignored social and psychological factors.” Comment.

2007: “The distinction between line and staff is relative rather than absolute.” Discuss.

2006: Simons work has had major implications for the-study of public administra­tion and the practice of public administration professionalism. Comment.

2006: The main problem with Mary Parker Follett’s work is that her idealism is showing. Explain.

2005: “Organization is a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more persons.” Comment.

2005: In Follett’s view, “authority belongs to the job and stays with the job.”Explain.

2005: “The failure of classical science of administration lies in its capacity to confront theory with evidence.” Discuss.

  1. Explain the contribution of George Elton Mayo to the development of the Human Relations School. How did behavioural scientists modify his basic findings? 60marks/2002.

(a) “Bureaucracy can exist only where the whole service of the state is removed from the common political life of the people, its chiefs as well as rank and file. Its motives, its objectives, its policy, its standards must be bureaucratic.” – Discuss. 20marks/200w/2004.


  1. Administrative Behaviour: Process and techniques of decision-making; Communication; Morale; Motivation Theories – content, process and con­temporary; Theories of Leadership: Traditional and Modern.


12 Marks Question

2012: 1. (c)  ‘Man’s motives … in different subparts of the same organization may be different’ [Edgar Schein]. Discuss.

2012: 1. (d)  Leadership is the ‘influential increment over and above mechanical compliance with the routine directives of the organization’ [Katz and Kahn]. Analyze.

60 Marks Question

2011: “In McGregor’s view, the managerial cosmology meaningfully addresses the understanding of manager and his role perceptions.” Explain

2011: “The successful management leaders are found in Likert’s ‘System-4’ approach to organizational leadership.” Examine.

2011: “Simon’s identifying decision-making as the core field of public administration appears logical, acceptable but his positivist underpinning is problematic.” Critically examine the statement.

2008: Examine the respective roles of facts and values in the decision-making process. Is it possible to make value-free decisions in government system? How can government decisions be made more rational?

2007: What is meant by morale? There is a belief that “morale and productivity go hand in hand and higher the morale, higher the productivity.” Do you agree? Substantiate.

30 Marks Question

2011: The Systems Approach is relevant even today for organizational analysis. Discuss how Chester Barnard and David Easton adopted this approach in their respective areas of study.

2011: Whereas Down’s model is largely dependent of a theory of psychological motivation, Niskanen’s model is framed by neo-classical thinking. In the light of the above, discuss the public choice approach to decision making.

2008: “Leaders do the right things, managers do them rightly.” (Bennis) Com­ment.

(b) Critically examine conflict resolution according to M.P. Follett. Explain how McGregor took forward her ideas in the context of complex organizations.

20 Marks Question

2012: 3. (a) ‘Three features characterize Simon’s original view of  bounded rationality :  search for alternatives,

satisficing, and aspiration adaptation.’ Elucidate. 20

2012: 5. (d)  Our normal expectation should be that new programs will fail to get off the ground and that, at best, they will take considerable time to get started. The cards in this world are stacked against things happening’ [Pressman and Wildaysky]. Comment. 150W/12M

2012: 5. (e) ‘Those who budget, deal with their overwhelming burdens by adopting heuristic aids to calculation’

[Wildaysky]. Explain. 150W/12M

2012: (c) Would you agree with Bachrach and Baratz that along with decisions, non-decisions are also part of policy ? Give reasons for your answer. 20

  1. Compare Abraham Maslow’s theory of motivation and Herzberg’s motivation -hygiene theory. Do you think that they are universally applicable ? If so, why ? If not, why not? 60marks/2002.

(b) “Weberian model of bureaucracy lacks empirical validity when applied to modern democratic administration.” Examine. 200w/20/2003.

(b) “Motivation theory is not synonymous with behaviour theory. The motivations are only one class of determinants of behaviour while behaviour is almost always motivated, it is also almost always biologically, culturally and situationally determined as well.” Comment. 200w/20/2004

  1. Weber’s ideas of impersonal detachment and esprit de corps are incompatible. Explain. 60/2004



  1. Organizations: Theories – systems, contingency; Structure and forms: Min­istries and Departments, Corporations, Companies, Boards and Commis­sions; Ad hoc and advisory bodies; Headquarters and Field relationships; Regulatory Authorities; Public – Private Partnerships.


2009: “There is no doubt that departmentalization is fraught with complexities. These are in part technical, in part political.” Discuss.

2008: “To claim that a company or a corporation form is always more effective than a departmental form of organization is an outdated view. The real test of a sound structure is its capacity to balance decisional autonomy and operational flexibility with optimal accountability.” Critically examine this statement.

2006: Autonomy and accountability in Public Enterprises cannot walk together. Explain.

20 Marks Question

2012: 3.(b) (i) ‘The essence of the contingency theory paradigm is that organizational effectiveness results from fitting characteristics of the organization, such as its structure, to contingencies that reflect the situation of the organization.’ Give your reactions to this statement. 20

(ii) In the light of your discussion on 3(b) (i) above, also show where and how this ‘fitting’ differs essentially from the `coping’ with `stress’ from the environment emphasized by the systems theory of organization. 20

(c) “Public corporations are not an end in themselves but an extension of the government activities designed to promote public welfare.” – Substantiate. 20/2002/200 words.


  1. Accountability and control: Concepts of accountability and control; Legis­lative, Executive and Judicial control over administration; Citizen and Ad­ministration; Role of media, interest groups, voluntary organizations; Civil society; Citizen’s Charters; Right to Information; Social audit.


2012: 4(a) ‘Open access to government records is … the hallmark of a democratic government’, but `governments are not hesitant about destroying records — very deliberately — in order to prevent investigations, as well as to generally weaken accountability’. Do you think that in this situation right to information can go to the extent of demanding complete declassification and `de-archivization’ of government records ? Argue. 30

(b) Should media exposure be included in rules for administrative accountability in India? State your views. 15

(c)  Comment on the role of Civil Society in facilitating administrative accountability with special reference to the `Janlokpal issue in India.         15

60 Marks Question

2007: “Right to information promotes transparency and accountability in the work­ing of every public authority.”Explain.

2006: Define the term civil society. How does civil society influence the public policy?

2005: What is judicial activism? How far has it been successful in exercising a check over administration?

20 Marks Question

2010: Examine the basic principles underlying citizen’s charter 20 × 3 = 60

With special reference to

(a) Its administrative philosophy

(b) Promoting public accountability

(c) Ensuring standards of public service

2008: “Instruments of public accountability can be truly effective only if the people and their associations, backed by a responsible media, are assertively pro­active.” Comment.

(b) “Civil society exists to ensure that government does provide good governance.” Discuss.


(d) “ ‘Citizens’ charter’ is the most important innovation in the context of promotion of customer-orientation of administration.” Discuss. 200words/20marks/2002.

(d) “Legislative controls over finances are inadequate and incomplete.” Comment. 200words/20marks/2002.

  1. What are the various institutional devices available for the redressal of citizen’s grievances against the excesses and malfunctioning of administration ? How successful have they been?


  1. Democracy and good governance are contradictions in terms. Discuss with examples. 60marks/2004.
  2. Discuss the legal and political implications of Right to information. Is it a feasible concept in the developing countries ? 60marks/2004.
  3. What is judicial activism ? How far has it been successful in exercising a check over administration ?


  1. Administrative Law: Meaning, scope and significance; Dicey on Adminis­trative law; Delegated legislation; Administrative Tribunals.


60 Marks Question

2006: Today the content of administrative law is driven primarily by the scope of public administrative activity. Explain.

2005: “Today the content of administrative law is driven primarily by the scope of public administration activity.” Explain.

20 Marks Question

2007: “Delegated legislation is a necessary evil.” Examine.

15 Marks Question

(b) (i) Make a critical assessment of Dicey’s understanding of the Rule of Law 2011/15.

(ii) Make out a case for Delegated Legislation. 2011/15.

2012: 6. (a) Do you think that there is an unresolved and often overlooked tension in Dicey’s concept of rule of law, considering that the other principle of parliamentary sovereignty in English constitutional system runs counter to it? 20

(b)  Would you agree that the strong Rechsstaat version of the rule of law found on the Continent never existed in England because of its particular history? 20

(c)  Why is the droit administratif regarded alongside the Napoleonic Code as the most notable achievement of French legal science? 20

(d) “Dicey was wrong not only in his concept of the rule of law, but he also overlooked the significance of the administrative law.”- Comment. 200words/20marks/2002.

(c) Delegated Legislation is not absolute. Explain. 200w/20/2004.

  1. “Today the content of administrative law is driven primarily by the scope of public administration activity.” Explain.


  1. Comparative Public Administration: Historical and sociological factors affecting administrative systems; Administration and politics in different countries; Current status of Comparative Public Administration; Ecology and administration; Riggsian models and their critique.


30 Marks Question

2009: Which of the model(s) in development administration is / are characterized by ‘Selectivism’, ‘Attainment’ and ‘Poly-functionalism’? Describe the cor­responding theoretical roots and attributes.

20 Marks Question

2011: ‘Polity is being made as it is being administrated and administered as it is being.’ Comment.

2009: “…. Non -western states often, If not always, have unbalance politics, but these may not necessarily be bureaucratic politics.” Discuss.

2008: “Truly comparative administrative studies are empirical, nomothetic and ecological.” (Riggs) In this perspective, examine the current status of Com­parative public administration.

2012:7. (a) Comment on the reasons why universal theory remains elusive in comparative public administration. 20

2007: “Not to be comparative is to be naively parochial” (Riggs). Comment.

2005: “No science of public administration is possible unless…. there is a body of comparative studies from which it may be possible to discover principles and generalities that transcend national boundaries and peculiar histori­cal experiences.” Discuss.

  1. Explain the meaning, significance and Models of Comparative Public Administration. 60/2004.


  1. Development Dynamics: Concept of development; Changing profile of de­velopment administration; ‘Anti-development thesis’; Bureaucracy and de­velopment; Strong state versus the market debate; Impact of Liberalization on administration in developing countries; Women and development – the self-help group movement.


12 Marks Question

2012: 5. (a)  `Riggs’s classification of societies into fused, prismatic, and diffracted is built around the concept of differentiation.’ Analyze. 150words/12M

(b)  ‘The anti-development thesis … reduces development to an idea without history, impervious to change’, but ‘fails to take account of the fact that for all its faults, development can be empowering.’ Discuss. 150W/12M

20 Marks Question

2012: (b) Given the importance of the issue of sex equality in development do you think the self-help group movement adequately addresses absence of women in the former mainstream development agenda ? 20

2010: (a) “The concept of development is multidimensional and ever-expanding.” Explain.

(b) “The Prismatic model of Riggs is equally applicable to developing as well as developed society.” Comment.

2007: “People’s participation is crucial to development administration.” Comment.

2005: “Development administration is starved for theories which will guide the pooling of empirical knowledge, orient new research, and recommend ad­ministrative policy.” Explain.

30 Marks Question

2011: Indicate the milestones in the story of development from the Nehruvian Model to the Liberalisation Model.

2011: Neither Edward Weidner nor Fred Riggs was able to describe the process of development administration adequately. Explain the drawbacks and weaknesses in their theoretical analyses. 2011/30.

(b) Comment on the following statements: 2010/30.

(i) “The more developed an administrative system become the greater the likelihood that it would have developmental affects.”

(ii) “The thrust of development administration failed to energise the Indian bureaucracy.”

60 Marks Question

2009: Consider the statement below:

  1. a) Self-Help groups (SHGs) enable women to realize their full poten­tial in some spheres of life.
  2. b) Self-Help Groups (SHGs) are providing avenues of political mobili­zation.

Examine the implication of these two statements and assess the potential of SHGs for development.

2008: “In certain discourses, there is a reflected basic distrust against bureau­cracy as an instrument of development.” Do you think bureaucracy is more appropriate for regulatory administration than for development adminis­tration? In the changing profile of development administration in a liberal­izing environment, what role or bureaucracy can be envisaged?

2006: Do you agree with the view that development administration has in recent years lost its impetus without making any significant intellectual break­through? Discuss.

(a) “Development administration is concerned with maximising innovation for development.” – Discuss. 200words/20/2002.

  1. How did Fred W. Riggs conceptualise the interactions between administrative systems and their environment? 60 Marks/2002.

(b) “Development Administration has two important aspects viz. ‘the administration of development’ and ‘the development of administration’.” Explain. 30marks/2003.

  1. Describe the changing profile of Development Administration and identify its efforts towards

people’s empowerment. 60/2004.


  1. Personnel Administration: Importance of human resource development; Recruitment, training, career advancement, position classification, discipline, performance appraisal, promotion, pay and service conditions; em­ployer-employee relations, grievance redressal mechanism; Code of con­duct; Administrative ethics.

2012: 5. (c)  The ‘selection model of recruitment rests on the assumption that the primary needs to be met are those of the organization.’ Examine. 150W/12M

20 Marks Question

2011: ‘Position Classification can be problematic. A serious complaint in its practice is that is dehumanizes the employee.’ Discuss.

2010: Briefly discuss the principles of ensuring ethics in public service as recommended in the Nolan Committee Report (1994).

2010: Explain the ‘Peter Principle’ in respect of promotion policy in a hierarchical organization.

Discuss in the connection the case for and against promotion based on seniority.

Distinguish fully between the syndicate method, role playing method, and Tgroup taining method in personnel management.

2008: “Training has proved its incapacity to change the attitudes, behaviour and values of civil servants.” Do you agree with this statement?

2007: “Training is essential not only for efficiency and effectiveness but also for broadening the vision of the employees.” Substantiate.

2006: To what extent has the human relations movement contributed to the knowledge and practice within the field of personnel administration?

2005: “If positions are the raw material of classification, the class is the operat­ing unit.” Discuss.

30 Marks Question

  1. (a) Civil Servants must be moralists in action, living up to Paul Appleby’s dictum that ‘responsible government is ethical government’. Examine this statement in the fight of good governance. 2011/30.

60 Marks Question

2009: It is said that ‘position classification’, as originally conceived is sound in terms of its operational characteristics, but complicated and unrespon­sive in practice. Why is it still considered better than other models of civil service classification?

2008: “To Talk of administrative modernization and still continue with the con­ventional practice of public personnel administration is gross incongruity.”Offer suggestions to initiate radical reforms in Human Resource Manage­ment of Public administrative systems.

2007: “The widening gap in the emoluments of government employees versus the public sector corporations and private sector employees has a strong bear­ing on the motivation and ability to work.” Comment.

2005: Why do public organizations evaluate employees’ performance? How can performance evaluation systems affect employees’ behaviour? How can administration effectively evaluate employees?

  1. Analyse the constitutional, political and operational dimensions of employer -employee relations. What are your suggestions to bring about a satisfactory relationship between them? 60 Marks/2002.
  2. Account for the increasing corruption in Administration. Suggest remedies to curb administrative corruption. 60 Marks/2003.

(c) “Training is practical education in any profession, not only to improve skills but also to develop attitudes and scheme of values necessary for effective performance.” Elaborate. 20marks/2003.

  1. Why do public organizations evaluate employees’ performance? How can performance evaluation systems affect employees’ behaviour? How can administration effectively evaluate employees?

(d) “No science of public administration is possible unless…. there is a body of comparative studies from which it may be possible to discover principles and generalities that transcend national boundaries and peculiar historical experiences.” Discuss. 200words/20/2002.


  1. Public Policy: Models of policy-making and their critique; Processes of conceptualization; planning, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and review and their limitations; State theories and public policy formulation.

12 Marks Question

2012:1.(e)  ‘Policy judgements comprise reality judgements, value judgements and instrumental judgements’. [Geoffrey Vickers]. Elucidate.

60 Marks Question

2009: “…….. Even if policies are well organized, efficiently operated, widely uti­lized, adequately financed and supported, we may still ask, so what? Do they work? …. What about their costs, outputs and impact?”Discuss.

2008: Give an assessment of the processes of policy formulation and discuss the problems of policy implementation.

30 Marks Question

2011: Critically examine the following statements in the field of Policy Science. 30.

(i) The increment list paradigm posits a conservative tendency in public policy making. 15.

(ii) Dror’s Optional Model is a fusion of the economically rational model with the extra-rational model. 15.

20 Marks Question

2010: (c) “Cost-benefit analysis is a very unsatisfactory view of evaluating public policy.” Comment.

2010: (d) “Public administration can be portrayed as a wheel or relationships focused on the formulation and implementation of public policy.” Explain.

2009: “Yehezkel Dror’s normative models of policy making tend to be academic in perspective with poor operational utility.” Comment.

2008: Laxity in monitoring and evaluation can render even the best policies in-fructuous. Discuss.

2007: “Implementing a public policy is a process of discovering what works and what does not.” Examine.

2006: Nothing comes across more strongly than the great naiveté about policy implementation. Discuss.

  1. Comment on the role of public administration in policy making and its implementation. What are the other factors influencing the policy process? 60marks/ 2003.

(d) Public Policy is not an independent variable and human history shows little evidence of systematic learning from policy experience. Discuss. 200w/20/2004

(a) Policy is a decision driven model of research use. Explain. 200w/20/2004


  1. Techniques of Administrative Improvement: Organization and methods, Work study and work management; e-governance and information tech­nology; Management aid tools like network analysis, MIS, PERT, CPM.

60 Marks Question

2007: Bring out the various techniques of O & M adopted in India to improve efficiency in administration.

2006: Discuss the main approaches to increase the efficiency of government and public administration.

2005: In what ways and how can information technology play a crucial role in effective government-citizen interaction in the context of good governance.

20 Marks Question

2012: 8. (a) (i) ‘Relations are the building blocks of network analysis’ — In the light of this statement summarize the form and content of relations in ‘network analysis’. 15

(ii) Trace the background and development of PERT and enumerate the steps involved in the application of PERT. 15

(iii) Draw a simple PERT chart for a seminar planning project. 15

(b) ‘The apparent demise of e-Government and e-Business as the main organizing principles of society has created the conditions for the rise of e-Governance from the ashes’ — In the context of the above statement show the distinctions between e-Government and e-Governance. 15

2009: “Technical like PERT and CPM help in effective office management.” Elabo­rate.

2008: “e-governance has the potentiality to emerge as the most effective instru­ment of efficiency, transparency and accountability.” Comment.

2006: The rise of information technology is an opportunity to overcome historical disabilities. Explain.

15 Marks Question

  1. (a) (i)What are the main functions of an O and M office? 2011/15.

(ii) A system of Information ties planning and control by managers to the operational system of implementation. Elaborate. 2011/15.

  1. Examine the needs and facts of administrative reforms in the fast changing scenario of the 21st century. What are the obstacles to administrative reforms? Give suggestions to overcome them. 60marks/ 2003.
  2. What is Information Technology ? Describe its impact on Public Administration. 2004


  1. Financial Administration: Monetary and fiscal policies; Public borrowings and public debt Budgets – types and forms; Budgetary process; Financial accountability; Accounts and audit.

60 Marks Question

2007: What is performance budgeting? Bring out its merits, limitations and diffi­culties.

2005: Why does the issue of budgeting as politics versus budgeting as analysis remain important in the budgeting process? Do you agree that some syn­thesis of the two positions seems possible? Illustrate.

30 Marks Question

2011(b): An administrator uses the budget as framework for communication and coordination, as well as for exercising administrative discipline throughout the administrative structure. Explain.

2011: Whereas ‘value for money’ audit aims at economy and ‘performance’ audit seek efficiency, ‘social audit goes beyond both, to examine the effectiveness of a programme or activity. Examine this statement with suitable illustrations.

20 Marks Question

2011: ‘Budget is a series of goals with pricetags attached.’ Explain.

2010: Distinguish between PPBS and performance budgeting.

2006: Successfully implementing budgeting approach requires favourable incen­tive structures. Discuss.

2006: Audit continues to be considered as something alien, something extrane­ous and something of the nature of an impediment. Explain.

2005: “The budget is an instrument of coordination.” Explain.

(d) “Auditing in Government is an exercise in post-mortem.” – Examine. 200words/20/2002.

  1. Examine the government budget as an instrument of public policy and a tool of legislative control. 60marks/2002.




  1. Evolution of Indian Administration: Kautilya’s Arthashastra; Mughal ad­ministration; Legacy of British rule in politics and administration – Indianization of public services, revenue administration, district adminis­tration, local self-government.

12 Marks Question

2012/(a)  “The Mughal Administrative System was military rule by nature and a form of centralised despotism.” Analyse.

15 Marks Question

2012.4. (c) `The Arthashastra is a book of political realism.’ Elaborate.           15

20 Marks Question

2010/20 (a) “The rule of kings depends primarily on written orders….” Why did Kautilya favour Codification of Laws?

2009: “Bureaucracy developed by the British stifled the village self rule.” Com­ment.

2009: “Comment on the view that despite different contexts, administrative max­ims of Kautilya’s Arthashatra bear considerable similarity with features of Weber’s ideal bureaucratic model.

2008: ‘Some features of Mughal Administration, in essence, do exist in India Administration Elaborate.’

2007: “Kautilya was not only the foremost politico-administrative thinker of an­cient India but he was an advocate and preacher of moral values too.” Comment.

2006: In the happiness of his subjects lies the kings happiness; in their welfare his welfare. Comment on Kautilyan state administration. In what respects is modern democratic rulers behavior different from Kautilyan rulers?

2005: “The Mughal Administrative System was a military rule by nature and was centralized despotism.”

30 Marks Question

2010.2.(a) It is said that the British made a significant contribution towards modernizing the Indian Administrative System on a ‘rational-legal’ basis. Justify the assessment with reference to the period from 1830 to 1865.


  1. Philosophical and Constitutional framework of government: Salient features and value premises; Constitutionalism; Political culture; Bureau­cracy and democracy; Bureaucracy and development.

60 Marks Question

2008: There is constant and continuous collision between bureaucratic values and a democratic value which adversely affects development, in the light of this statement examine the role of bureaucracy in development.

30 Marks Question

(b) “Indian federalism is passing through a state of potential maturity.” Discuss this statement in the context of the views of the Commission on Centre-State Relations (Justice M. M. Punchi). 2011/30.

2009: Discuss the relationship between governance and development in any one Indian state, giving illustrations.

2009: “Value of Indian administration must be rooted in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.” Discuss.

20 Marks Question

(c) Explain with appropriate illustrations the interface between political culture and bureaucratic culture in contemporary India. 2011/20.

2006: The basic values of the Constitution of India enshrine social, political and economic philosophy symbolizing sovereignty of the people, rule of law and basic characteristics of a socialist, secular, democratic republic. Comment.


  1. Public Sector Undertakings: Public sector in modern India; Forms of Pub­lic Sector Undertakings; Problems of autonomy, accountability and con­trol; Impact of liberalization and privatization.

30 Marks Question

(a) Can the holding company’s structure act as in institutional change to add to efficiency? Give your answer with appropriate illustrations. 2011/30.

20 Marks Question

(b) Is it correct to state that “One of the major reasons for the failure of many ….public sector undertakings was due to departures from the original concept of autonomy”? 2010/20.

2008: ‘The shift from the Nehruvian to the liberalization model of development has necessitated reinventing government.’ Comment.

2007: “Memorandum of understanding scheme’ between government and public enterprise has forced public undertakings to improve the overall perfor­mance.” Comment.

2007: “The blame for our poor public sector performance can be laid on the way our bureaucracy is structured.”Comment.

2012.1.(d)  “`Memorandum of Understanding’ scheme between the Government and Public enterprises has forced public undertakings to improve their overall performance.” Do you agree with this statement ?


  1. Union Government and Administration: Executive, Parliament, Judiciary- structure, functions, work processes; Recent trends; Intra-governmental relations; Cabinet Secretariat; Prime Minister’s Office; Central Secretariat; Ministries and Departments; Boards; Commissions; Attached offices; Field organizations.

12 Marks Question

2012.(b) ‘Judges should not govern the country. They can lay down a law, not interfere with governance.’


  1. (c) Critically examine the variables in the composition and functioning of Cabinet Committees.

2012.5.(d)  ‘Questions represent a powerful technique of parliamentary control over expenditure.’ Explain.

20 Marks Question

2010.1.(a) “Public Interest Litigation (PIL) has undergone several changes since its inception in 1980s.” 20.

2010.1.(b) “….Judges and Courts have creatively reinterpreted their statutory authority and expanded their own power and enhanced their standing vis-à-vis the legislature and executive.” Critically examine this assessment.

2010.4.(a) “In an era of hung parliaments the power of the President expands, more so when the incumbent decides to be assertive.” Comment on the statement with reference to the situation in India during the last two decades.

2010.4.(c) Does the emergence of an Empowered group of Ministers at the central level impair the doctrine of cabinet responsibility?

2009: “Administrative talent of a minister determines his success.”

2007: “Parliamentary Departmental Committees have played their role effec­tively in analyzing the demands for grants.” Evaluate.

2007: “The President of India acts like grandparent in a family. If younger gen­eration does not follow his/her advice, he/she is just unable to do any­thing.”Comment.

2006: Not the Potomac, but the Thames, fertilizes the flow of Yamuna. In the light of the statement comment on the symbolic institution of the Presi­dent of India.

2005: “The veto-power of the. Indian President is a combination of the absolute, suspensive and pocket veto.”

2005: “A strong PMO is a salvation for any Indian Prime Minister, but concentra­tion of power is a danger to democracy.”

30 Marks Question

2012.2.(b) In the exercise of his/her functions, the President of India is a mere ‘Convenient working hypothesis’. Do you agree with this view ? Justify your reasoning with illustrations.           30

2012.3.(a) ‘Parliamentary Departmental Committees have played their role effectively in analysing the

demands for grants.’ Evaluate.              20

2012.3.(c)  ‘Parliament is an independent institution, not to be seen as an extension of government or of a party.’ Elaborate.         20

  1. 2. (a) Discuss the evolution of the role of the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) since independence.

2009: “The respective roles of the cabinet Secretary of the. Government of India and of the chief Secretary of a state are similar in certain respects, and dissimilar in others.”Explain.

2005: “The Cabinet Secretariat provides the eyes and ears for the Prime Minis­ter to keep in touch with the process of official business in Central Gov­ernment.”Comment.

60 Marks Question

2007: There is a separate Central Ministry or Department on each subject allo­cated to State List. Does it mean supremacy of the Union Government or an emphasis on development administration? Analyze.

2006: Indian Prime Minister should not only be accountable to the Indian Parlia­ment but should appear to be so. Comment on the accountability of; the Prime Minister to the. Indian Parliament in the context of extra-constitu­tional power.


  1. Plans and Priorities: Machinery of planning; Role, composition and func­tions of the Planning Commission and the National Development Council; ‘Indicative’ planning; Process of plan formulation at Union and State levels; Constitutional Amendments (1992) and decentralized planning for economic development and social justice.

10 Marks Question

2012.3. (ii) Justify ‘indicative’ planning in the context of LPG.            10

60 Marks Question

2005: “From highly centralized planning system, India has moved towards in­dicative planning under which long-term strategic vision of the future is built and nation’s priorities are decided.” Elucidate.

30 Marks Question

  1. (a) Explain the context and perspectives of the following statements: 2010/30

(i) The Planning Commission is “an armchair adviser”.

(ii) The Planning Commission should reinvent itself as a systems reforms commission in the backdrop of changed global and domestic scenarios.

2008: What are the tension areas in Union-State relations in Planning?

2008: Discuss the problems in the planning process at the state and sub-state levels.

2005: “National Development Council is criticized as a usurping authority-func­tioning as a virtual super-cabinet.” Explain.

20 Marks Question

2012.4.(b)  Discuss the recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission in respect of the National Development Council for improving Centre-State planning relations.            20


  1. State Government and Administration: Union-State administrative, leg­islative and financial relations; Role of the Finance Commission; Gover­nor; Chief Minister; Council of Ministers; Chief Secretary; State Secre­tariat; Directorates.

60 Marks Question

2008: “The Chief Minister is the real executive of the State, whose effectiveness is largely related to his, personality traits and equation with central Leader­ship.” Explain and illustrate with relevant examples.

2007: The dispute between Secretariat and Directorate is the result of Generalist us Specialist controversy.”Analyze.

2006: The main problem of Centre-State relations in India _is bottlenecks in-fis­cal federalism. Comment.

2005: “The Chief Minister symbolizes ruling power structure and is the real ex­ecutive head of the State Government.” Discuss the above statement in the light of his position in a Coalition Government.

30 Marks Question

2012.2. (a) “The success and prestige enjoyed by a Chief Secretary depend, to a large extent, upon his equations with the varied sets of people and institutions that form the work environment.”

Critically evaluate the statement and its relevance to the role of the Chief Secretary in the discharge of his functions.         30

2012.4. (a) ‘The authority of the Governor in the discretionary field is not unrestrained. If it is misused … the President can check him/her and if necessary, he may even remove the Governor.’ Examine this statement critically in the context of the Office of the Governor.               25

(b) The prevalence of multiple channels for transfer of resources from the Centre to the State is stated to have compounded the problems of federal fiscal arrangements. Discuss. 2010/30.

20 Marks Question

(c) States with a record of good governance, it is argued by spokespersons of some states, lost their earlier share from the Finance Commission’s award. 2010/20.

2007: “Because of several judicial pronouncements, Governors in States are no longer viewed as agents of the ‘Party in Power’ at the Central level.” Evalu­ate.


  1. District Administration since Independence: Changing role of the Collec­tor; Union-state-local relations; Imperatives of development management and law and order administration; District administration and democratic decentralization.

60 Marks Question

2006: The District Collector, the additional Deputy Commissioner and Sub-Divi­sional Officer, have virtually become officers-in-attendance and have lost initiative and independence of judgement. Comment.

30 Marks Question

2009: “Many of the programmes of development being implemented at the state and the local level have been initiated or financed by the Union Government. This has transformed the nature of Indian federalism.”Critically examine this assessment.

2005: “The primary emphasis in District Administration has to be on implemen­tation of development programmes in cooperation with active support of people.” Elucidate.

20 Marks Question

2008: ‘District Administration is like a small tortoise carrying the load of an elephant.’ Discuss.

2005: “The District Collector is, an overburdened officer due to the expansion and increasing developmental activities.”


  1. Civil Services: Constitutional position; Structure, recruitment, training and capacity-building; Good governance initiatives; Code of conduct and discipline; Staff associations; Political rights; Grievance redressal mecha­nism; Civil service neutrality; Civil service activism.

60 Marks Question

2008: Describe the changing character and new orientations of Public Services in India since Independence.

30 Marks Question

(b) ‘Performance Appraisal System’ with special reference to the Performance Management and Evaluation System (PMES) are expected to transform the bureaucratic culture of Indian administration. Do you agree? Give reason. 2011/30.

2009: Do state Services suffer in comparison with All India and Central Services? Suggest measures for enhancing the role, competence and impact of state services.

2009: Do you agree with the view that citizen’s Charters in India have not suc­ceeded in their objective of making of administrative system citizen-cen­tric? Analyze and give your suggestions in this regard.

2008: ‘Training or civil servants for capacity building should be in consonance with the needs of the socio-economic and technological development of the country.’ Explain.

12 Marks Question

5.(a)  ‘Bureaucrats should not play politics, but understand how politics works.’ Comment.

20 Marks Question

(ii) “Grievance redressal system is perhaps the weakest link in India’s civil services management.” Comment. 2011/15.

2011: (a) “Over-dependence on bureaucracy for bringing about socio-economic development in India has proved to be dysfunctional.” Comment.

(b) “Civil service neutrality is a fiction. How any thinking person can be neutral?” 2010/20.

2009: “The weakest aspect of Indian Administration is grievance redressal ma­chinery.” Discuss.

2009: “There is no basic contradiction between Civil Service neutrality and Civil Service activism.”Comment.

2009: “A fix tenure in Civil Service postings can increase productivity, account­ability and probity in Government.”

2007: “A well-designed module-based training for Civil Servants is the best way to achieve the goals of good governance.” Analyze.

2006: The generalist character of I.A.S. is its chief characteristic as well as its chief criticism. Comment.

2005: “One of the most distinctive characteristics of Indian Administrative Ser­vice is its multipurpose character.”

(c) “The doctrine of political neutrality and anonymity is no more relevant to modern civil service.” – Comment. 200words/20/2002.

  1. What is morale? State its significance and suggest methods to foster and sustain morale in an organization. 200words/20/2002.

(b) Civil Service neutrality is a thing of the Past. Discuss. 200w/20/2004

(c) Recruitment is the backbone of Public Administration. Explain. 200w/20/2004



  1. Financial Management: Budget as a political instrument; Parliamentary control of public expenditure; Role of finance ministry in monetary and fiscal area; Accounting techniques; Audit; Role of Controller General of Accounts and Comptroller and Auditor General of India.

2012.7.b)  What is an output-based performance budgeting system? Analyse this system in the context of

India. 15

30 Marks Question

  1. (a) Comment on the following statement: “The Comptroller and Auditor-General that hobbles its functioning, a judge without the power to sentence and a litigant with no right to appeal.” 2011/30.

2009: Examine the role of Finance Ministry of the Union Government in design­ing and implementing monetary and Fiscal policies.

2005: “Audit provides a healthy safeguard against public money going down the drain.” Comment.

20 Marks Question

(b) The optimism expressed by the proponents of the Financial Rsponsibility and Budged Management Act, 2003, in ensuring fiscal discipline appears to be unwarranted. 2010/20.

2008: The Budget is more than the economic horoscope of the nation. Comment.

2006: Audit, like the judiciary, the executive and the legislature is one of the Important ingredients of democracy. Comment.

2005: “Public Accounts Committee conducts a post-mortem examination of Pub­lic Accounts.”


  1. Administrative Reforms since Independence: Major concerns; Important Committees and Commissions; Reforms in financial management and hu­man resource development; Problems of implementation.

60 Marks Question

2007: National Commission to review the working of the Constitution has sug­gested revolutionary changes in administrative culture. Analyze its major recommendations on Civil Services and Administration.

30 Marks Question

2012.6.(b) ‘Efforts made towards administrative reforms so far have been lacking in congruence between strategy, structure and substance.’ Discuss with illustrations.      30

2012.8. (a) Compare and contrast the Padmanabhaiah, Ribeiro and Mallinath Committee Reports.    25

  1. (a) With reference to India, discuss the assertion that administrative reforms are multi-dimensional and need to be substantiated by reforms in other related areas of state action. 2010/30.

(b) “Administrative reforms get diluted because of constant tinkering on the margin rather than a holistic transformation.” Discuss the statement in the context of reforming district administration in India. 2011/30.

(b) The Second Administrative Reforms Commission, in its 10th Report, observes that “the common perception is that the incentive structure in government tis too weak and inadequate to motivate better performance.” Elucidate. 2010/30.

2009: “The Recommendations of the second Administrative Reform Commission on reforming the Civil Service are radical yet implementable.” Do you agree?

2009: Briefly discuss the main recommendations of any two of the following­:

  1. i) Paul Appleby (1953 and 1956)
  2. ii) Santhanam Committee

iii) Hota Committee

  1. iv) Sixth Pay Commission

2009: In your view, which have been the five most important administrative reforms implemented after Independence? What has been their impact?

20 Marks Question

2012.7. (a) Indian administration is yet to fully appreciate and adopt the benefits of Information Technology.

Elucidate. 15

2012.5.(b)  ‘Good governance is closely aligned with effective democratic governance.’ Elaborate.

2006: All efforts in the field of reforms in public administration by the political executive have resulted in no significant output. Comment.

2005: “Efforts made towards administrative reforms so far have been lacking in a congruence between strategy, structure and substance.”


  1. Rural Development: Institutions and agencies since independence; Rural development programmes: foci and strategies; Decentralization and Panchayati Raj; 73rd Constitutional amendment.

2012.7.(c)  NGOs demand greater autonomy from the State and are now ‘new actors’ in development. How effective are they as instruments of decentralisation and debureaucratisation ? Critically evaluate.     30

12 Marks Question

2012.5.(e) Panchayati Raj Institutions are  still  affected by State control and domination by bureaucracy.’ Do you agree?

60 Marks Question

2007: “73rd Constitutional Amendment has provided permanent structural frame­work to PRI’s resulting into silent social revolution.” Comment.

2005: “Even after a decade of having adopted the 73rd Amendment to the Constitution, the Panchayat Raj institution still faces a number of problems to­wards making it a strong and vibrant unit of Government.”Comment.

30 Marks Question

2008: What are the basic hurdles and pitfalls in the implementation of the Na­tional Rural Employment Guarantee Act?

20 Marks Question

(a) “The real problem of administrative reforms in India at the State and the local levels in that they are imposed from above.” Comment. 2011/20.

(a) “Non-Governmental Organisations play a catalytic role in enabling communities to define their own priorities….”2010/20.

(c) “The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNURM) is one of the biggest reforms-linked development programmes taken up by the Government.” 2010/20.

2008: ‘Economic Development and Social Justice are the hallmarks of the 1992 Constitutional Amendment Acts.’ Elucidate.

2006: The 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments are major landmarks in India’s Constitutional and Local Governance. Comment.


  1. Urban Local Government: Municipal governance: main features, struc­tures, finance and problem areas; 74th Constitutional Amendment; Glo­bal-local debate; New localism; Development dynamics, politics and ad­ministration with special reference to city management.

12Marks Question

2012.1.(e)  To what extent has the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act created a ‘federation within a federation’ in India ?

2012.3.(b)(i) Explain the emerging ambiguity in respect of the developmental role of the District Collector in the wake of the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act.        10

2012.6. (a) Local self-government in India is the interplay of several factors — historical, ideological, and administrative. Critically examine these factors.           30

2012.8.(c)  How does New Localism impact Centre-State- Local relations in the era of LPG ?            15


60 Marks Question

2008: New Localism is identified with the nevi Local-State and local activism. Examine how this had impacted city management in India.

30 Marks Question

  1. (b) Examine the institutional vulnerability of municipal governance in the midst of an emerging spectre of multiple partnerships. 2011/30.

20 Marks Question

(c) “Absence of District Planning Committees in a large number of districts has prevented convergence of planning at the district level.” Examine the above statement with examples. 2011/20.

(b) Discuss the basic principles of ‘New Localism’ as a part of the global-local debate. 2011/20.

2009: “Sound municipal governance requires a cadre of specilised municipal ser­vices executives equal in status to state, services.”

2008: In urban governance, uni-functional agencies and development authori­ties create a “functional jungle.” Explain.

2007: “In spite of having Constitutional status the District. Planning Committee is not able to implement decentralized planning due to centralized nature of economic planning.” Comment.


  1. Law and Order Administration: British legacy; National Police Commis­sion; Investigative agencies; Role of central and state agencies including paramilitary forces in maintenance of law and order and countering insur­gency and terrorism; Criminalisation of politics and administration; Po­lice-public relations; Reforms in Police.
  2. (b) “Even though law and order administration is a State subject in the Indian Constitution, it is paradoxical that the para-military and other kinds of security forces under the Union Government have grown in recent years.” Critically analyse the statement. 20

30 Marks Question

(b) “Community policing has become a victim of elite capture.” 2011/15.

Discuss the concept of community policing and bring out the implications of the above statement. 2011/30.

  1. (a) “The theme of Police Reforms continues to haunt the Parliament.” In the right of this statement, discuss the state of Criminal Justice System administration in India. 2011/30.

2009: “Law and order problems of the twenty first century cannot be tackled through legislations and structures of the nineteenth century.” Give sug­gestions for transforming the law and order machinery at the State level.

20 Marks Question

2005: “The role played by Central and State Governments in maintaining law and order ds inadequate and unmatched to growing criminalization.”


  1. Significant issues in Indian Administration: Values in public service; Regu­latory Commissions; National Human Rights Commission; Problems of ad­ministration in coalition regimes; Citizen-administration interface; Cor­ruption and administration; Disaster management.

60 Marks Question

2007: “If information is power, nothing can perhaps empower a citizen more than the secret and developmental information held by various public authori­ties.” Analyze the merits and demerits of RTI Act, 2005 in the light of this statement.

“Significant issues have a very good weight-age in paper-II. The questions of 2005 and 2006 in 60marks are not included as it has been taken out of syllabus.

30 Marks Question

  1. (a) It is argued that the Bhopal gas disaster and the response pattern to it reflect multiple vulnerabilities relating to systems of corporate social responsibility, governance at local, state and central levels, and legal safeguards and liabilities. Comment on this assessment. 2010/30

2009: “The National Human Rights Commissions has done a commendable job in developing job in developing a sense responsibility among organization to­wards tie protection of human rights.” Comment on this assessment.

(b) With the creation of new regulatory agencies in the wake of liberalization, overlapping jurisdictions and conflicts became the new trend. Is there need for the creation of a super-regulator or unified regulator? 2010/30

20 Marks Question

2012.5.(c)  ‘Corruption is more of an environmental than an administrative problem.’ Discuss. 12marks

  1. (a) (i)“One Lok Pal, howsoever strong it may be, cannot eliminate corruption in the politico-administrative system in India.” Comment. 2011/15.
  2. (a) (i)Identify the different conceptual categories of disasters. 2011/15.

(ii) Write a note on the new culture of disaster management. 2011/15.

(b) “Disaster insurance is desirable but not an easy proposition to implement.” Illustrate with suitable examples. 2011/20.

(b) “The performance of Lok Ayuktas in various States has been uneven.” Comment with example. 2011/20.

2009: “India has failed to devise a long term strategy for drought management.”

2008: ‘In India, there appears to be more disaster of management than manage­ment of disaster’ Comment.

2008: ‘Right to Information Act has led to greater transparency and accountabil­ity of administration’ Comment.

2006: By taking some offices out of the jurisdiction of the Office of Profit Act, the Government of India has doubly assured the public mind of its duplicity. Comment.

2006: The role played by the National Human Rights commission in Maintaining and preserving dignity of Indians citizens has been satisfactory and up to the expectations. Elucidate.




Total Time 3 Hours                         Total Marks 250



Q.1. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words each: 10×5=50

(a) How did traditional public administration ”resolve a fundamentally irresolvable problem-creating an administration strong enough to be effective but not so strong enough to endanger accountability”? 10

(b) The theory of ‘organizational incompetence’ has two separate and distinct faces. Examine Chris Argyris’ views on this. 10

(c) ”In the globalized public administration, hierarchy creates more ethical problems than it solves…”Comment. 10

(d) Public Administration in the neo-liberal era is governed less by instruments of internal accountability and more by those of external accountability. Elaborate. 10

(e) Discuss the view that ”tribunals should have the same degree of independence from the executive as that enjoyed by the Supreme Court and the High Courts, especially for those tribunals that look over the functions of High Courts.”10

Q.2. (a) “New Public Management may have neither been the saviour its enthusiasts promised nor the devil its critics worried it would be.” Discuss. 25

(b) “The design of the physical structure, the anatomy of the organization came first, and was indeed the principal consideration.”

“An organization is a system of interrelated social behaviours of participants.”

Analyse these statements and evaluate the contributions of the respective approaches to administration theory. 25

Q.3. (a) “Decisions are not made by ‘organizations’, but by ‘human beings’ behaving as members of organizations.” How do Bernard and Simon conceptualize the relation between the decisions of the individual employee and the organizational authority? 20

(b)”A variety of different organizational arrangements can be used to provide different public goods and services.” Explain the theory underlying this proposition and its potential contribution. 15

(c) What is the nature of psychological contract pursued by organizational management through authority and the employees through exertion of upward influence? 15

Q.4. (a) Structural theory is, by and large, grounded in classical principles of efficiency, effectiveness and productivity. Explain. 25

(b) “Public interest is still inadequate as a ground concept to evaluate public “policy.” Discuss. 25



Q.5. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words each: 10×5=50

(a) “Comparative Public Administration both resembles and differs from modern organization theory.” Elaborate. 10

(b) “In organizational analysis there is always gender around.” (Gouldner). Argue 10

(c) What is administrative elitism? How does it evolve in public administration? Elaborate your response with reference to historical examples. 10

(d) The success rate of e-government projects in most developing countries is stated to be rather low. Assess the reason. 10

(e) What new models of budgetary capacity and incapacity have emerged after the decline of Planning Programming Budgeting and Zero-based Budgeting? 10

Q.6. (a) “For those who use the euphemism of ‘shared power’ for participation, the appropriate literature for guidance is practical politics, not organization and management.”

“Strong state and strong civil society are the need to develop both participatory democracy and responsive government as mutually reinforcing and supportive.”

Bring out the myths and realities associated with public participation. 20

(b) “….. in most cases …. newly independent states, of the nations of Africa, Asia and Latin America, despite their differences …. are in transition.” 15(Ferrel Heady).

What common features are indicative of characteristics of their administrative patterns (cultures)? 15

(c) “To talk about the regulatory framework is to talk about governance.” Analyse the statement in the context of public-private-partnerships and identify the elements of regulation. 15

Q7. (a) “Economic reforms are a WORK in progress with the state reluctant to fully relinquish its reins.”Discuss the statement with regard to implementation of economic reforms in India.  15

(b) “The policy process was not structured in the way required by bureaucratic planning.”

“Arguably, incrementalism now stands most in contrast to neo-liberal nationality that impose MARKETS against both gradual change and democratic liberalism.”

Analyse these two statements.  20

(c) Budget allocation involves series of tensions between actors with different backgrounds, orientations and interests and between short-term goals and long term institutional requirements. Discuss.  15

Q8. (a) Read the following instances carefully and suggest what specific perspectives on organizational psychology of motivation would help the concerned organization to reconcile the needs of the following four persons with the needs of the organization: 30

(i) Mr. A comes to his office with clocklike punctuality; does his work with impeccable honesty and integrity; takes order from above gladly; responds well to overtures by peers; but neither mixes with anyone himself nor seeks anyone’s company. What is more, he seems quite happy in his isolation.

(ii) Mr. B is an efficient charge-hand at the welding shop. He is very outgoing and makes friends fast, but falls out with them very fast too. He is however easily pacified when anyone asks him to calm down in the name of the organization.

(iii) Dr. C is completely happy and absorbed when he is teaching in the classes, and does not at all mind when his workload gets heavier and covers new areas. But he gets angry when the finance section raises objections about his medical bills; and is furious that the higher administration is yet to give him full tenure.

(iv) Mr. D is a metallurgist in the forge shop of the steel plant, and has received honours for his innovativeness in modifying conventional alloys. He also paints well and values his painting skills far more than his metallurgy and is extremely unhappy that the company house journal did not finally carry his water sketch on its front cover.

(b) Suppose the Government of India is thinking of constructing a dam in a mountain valley girded by forests and inhabited by ethnic communities. What rational techniques of policy analysis should it resort to for coping with likely uncertainties and unforeseen contingencies? 20

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Paper: II 2013:                                Total Time 3 Hours: Total Marks 250

There are EIGHT questions divided in two SECTIONS and printed both in HINDI and in ENGLISH.

Candidate has to attempt FIVE questions in all.

Questions no. 1 and 5 are compulsory and out of the remaining, THREE are to be attempted choosing at least ONE from each Section.


  1. Attempt the following in about 150 words each: 10×5=50

(a) “The Charter Act of 1853 marked the beginning of parliamentary system in India.” Explain.

(b) “Civil service neutrality is founded on the application of the principles of Rule of Law.”Comment

(c) “The second generation reforms in the Panchayati Raj institutions have changed Panchayats from an agency of development at local level into a political institution.” Discuss.

(d) “Finance Commission in India performs the JOB of statistics aggregation.” Comment

(e) “Planning enables comprehensive and scientific understanding of problems.” Examine the statement in the context of planning methodology.

  1. (a) “Bureaucratic agencies, characterized by established procedures, specialization, leadership, clear objectives are not ideal to handle disaster management.” Examine with reference to the need for administrative flexibility in managing disasters. (In about 250 words) 20

(b) “The liberal-democratic ideology of the West influenced the shaping of value premises of the Indian Constitution.” Discuss. (In about 250 words) 20

(c) “Autonomy to public sector undertakings is a myth.” Analyse in the context of the use of government expenditures by politicians who control governments at different levels. (In about 150 words) 10

  1. (a) “Laws are enacted without involving the police in the conception stage, with the result implementation of these laws leaves much to be desired.” Examine the role of police in protection of children. (In about 250 words) 20

(b) “Central Secretariat is the nodal agency for administering the Union subjects and establishing coordination among the various activities of the government.” Discuss. (In about 250 words) 20

(c) Is there a need to dispense with the Office of the Governor? Examine in the context of coalition governments. (In about 150 words) 10

  1. (a) “There is a tendency of centralism in Indian federalism, but it is not because of its institutional framework but because of its socialist goals and centrally devised plan development.” Explain the statement in the context of Union-State relationship. (In about 250 words) 20

(b) “Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Panchayat’s function enhances efficiency, transparency and accountability and also induces mass ICT culture.” Examine. (In about 250 words) 20

(c) “Judicial review of administrative tribunal’s decisions defeats the very objective of establishing tribunals.” Comment with reference to Central Administrative Tribunal. (In about 150 words) 10

Section B

  1. Attempt the following in not more than 150 words each: 10×5=50

(a) “Public Administration today tends to be less public in quantitative terms, but more responsive to public needs than before in qualitative terms.” Examine with reference to citizen-centric administration.

(b) Performance budgeting failed because it was applied to sectors/programmes where quantitative ‘evaluation was not feasible.” Examine the principles underlying performance budgeting techniques.

(c) The design of the Indian Police was to subjugate the Indian People in the aftermath of 1857.” Analyse in the context of the Indian Police Act of 186l.

(d) “Reducing the size (geographical area) of the district will provide relief to the overburdened and overworked collector.” Comment

(e) “The concept of social audit is more comprehensive than that of traditional audit.” Comment

  1. (a) “Gandhian model of decentralization is similar to the process of reinventing governance.” Analyse in the context of good governance. (In about 250 words) 20

(b) “Accounting is the essence of producing promptly and clearly the facts relating to financial conditions and operations that are required as a basis of management.” Substantiate the statement in the context of accounting methods and techniques in government. (In about 250 words) 20

(c) Explain the important recommendations of V. T. Krishnamachary Committee (1962) on Indian and State Administrative Services and problems of District Administration. (In about 150 words) 10

  1. (a) “The 73rd Amendment, it is felt, may accentuate fiscal indiscipline by establishing between States and Local Governments a system of transfers similar to the one in place between the Central and State Governments.” (World Bank) Comment (In about 250 words) 20

(b) “Municipal Administration in India faces both structural and operational challenges.” Examine in the context of post-74th Amendment Act. (In about 250 words) 20

(c) “Self-Help Groups (SHGs) have contributed to a change in the role of rural women in development-from symbolic participation to empowerment.” Discuss. (In about 150 words) 10

  1. (a) “There is both criminalization of politics and politicization of criminals in India.” Examine and identify the challenges they cause for law and order administration. (In about 250 words) 20

(b) “The basic ethical problem for an administrator is to determine how he/she can use discretionary power in a way that is consistent with democratic values.” Comment with reference to corruption in administration. (In about 50 words) 20

(c) Justify the constitutional provision to treat certain expenditure as charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India. (In about 150 words) 10

Public Administration 2014

Paper-I and II: Each 3 hours and 250 marks.

There are 8 questions divided into two sections, printed in both Hindi and English.

You’ve to attempt 5 questions. No.1 and 5 are compulsory and out of remaining, 3 are to be attempted choosing at least 1 question from each section.

Word limit, wherever specific, should be adhered to. (They did not specify wordlimit in questions, except for Q1 and Q5).

Attempt all questions in chronological order, unless struck off, attempt of a question shall be counted even if attempted partially. Any page of portion of the page left blank in the question-cum-answer booklet must be clearly struck off.



Q1 (Compulsory) Answer the following questions in about 150 words each: 10 x 5 = 50 marks.

What are the implications of the post-structuralist perspective on the discrete aspects of Public Administration, coming from its epistemological positions?

“Adaptive, problem-solving, temporary systems of diverse specialists, linked together by coordinating executives in an organic flux-this is original form that will gradually replace bureaucracy”. Discuss, in the light of this statement, the ‘end of bureaucracy’ thesis and its strengths and limitations.

“Karl Marx’s interpretation of bureaucracy was rooted in the history of the nature of the State”. Evaluate.

“The conceptual division between administrative and constitutional law is quite porous, and that along many dimensions, administrative law can be considered more constitutional in character that the constitutions.” How would you justify the statement?

Is Peter Drucker justified in saying, “Management principles should not tell us what to do, but only tell us what not to do”? Comment.


Q2. Answer following (20+15+15=50 marks)

“Governance theory and the nation of governmentality have many points of convergence, but they run on parallel lines.” Comment. 20 marks.

“Taylor’s ideas need modification in the context of post-industrial economies in contemporary era.” Justify with reasons. 15 marks

How does the Strategic Contingencies Theory of organizational design deal with problems arising from sub-unit centrality and non-substituability? 15 marks.


Q3. Answer following (20+15+15=50 marks)

According to Macgregor, “true professional help is not in playing God with the client, but in placing professional knowledge and skills at the client’s disposal.” In the light of above statement, justify how theory-Y is indicative and not prescriptive. 20 marks

the notion of informal organisation is a residual or cafeteria concept of diverse and sprawling contents. How does Gouldner established the need for understanding the interdigitations between the formal and informal organisation. 15 marks

The right to information is not all about citizens empowerment, it essentially redefines the concept of accountability. Discuss. 15 marks


Q4. Answer following (20+15+15=50 marks)

New public management and post new public management reforms initiatives ever affected the balance between managerial, political, administrative, legal, professional and social accountability. Analyze.

Delegation to independent agencies has taken place in an interdependent progress driven by emulation. Discuss in the context of independent regulatory agencies in the modern regulatory state.

Voluntary organizations have become tools of sensitization of governmental agencies. comment.



Q5. (Compulsory) Answer following in 150 words each. (5 x 10 = 50 marks)

Critically examine the Riggsian concept of differentiation in context of post-globalisation era.

The term development Administration can be used only in a broad sense to mark the variety of approaches and point of view. Discuss

The bottom line for governance outcome rather than the outputs of government. Analyse in context of e-government and e-governance.

“Policies determine politics as governments constrain.” Attempt a critique of this statement.

Instead of reforms to budgetary process Wildavsky proposes to redefine the role of political institutions and rules by which politics leads to agreement on budget. Explain


Q6. Answer following (20+15+15=50 marks)

The fact that we call something performance auditing means that we imply salient features which can distinguish it from other forms of enquiry. Discuss with reference to the main majors or indicators of performance measurement.

The output studies approach to public policy analyses ovestresses the rational techniques and allocative dimension of public policy. Analyse the statement.

The field of MIS is not necessarily an extension of computer science, but of management and organisation theory. Elucidate


Q7. Answer following (20+15+15=50 marks)

The technical and multidisciplinary nature of e-governance has created an interdependent relationship within government between policymakers, program administrators and technical specialists. Analyse in context of generalist – specialist relationship

Self-help groups have not only empowered women, but have also brought about attitudinal change among all stakeholders towards women development. Discuss

Many African and Asian countries have inherited the colonial idea of civil service as a privileged elite. Hence, the social status of the civil services is an important aspect of the bureaucracy’s unsuitability for change. Comment.


Q8. Answer following (20+15+15=50 marks)

Identify the main elements of program budgeting, output budgeting and new performance budgeting. What do they have in common with PPBS?

According to Y.Dror, “the science of modelling through is essentially a reinforcement of pro inertia and anti-innovation ideas in policy-making.” Comment

British philosophy of Administration is based on a unification of science of Administration with ethics. Analyze.

Pub Ad: 2014 Paper-2 Section-A

Q1. (Compulsory) 150 words x 10 marks each x 5 = 50 marks

  1. Ethics in public services has been the central concern of Kautilya’s Arthashastra. Critically examine the statement
  2. Discuss the valuable premise of constitutionalism in India which the bureaucracy cannot violate
  3. The functional role of Prime Minister’s office (PMO) depends on the Prime Minister’s policy orientation, personality and style of administration. Comment on the statement with suitable examples.
  4. Despite the adoption of decentralised planning, participatory initiative remain marginalised and divisive live in many regions. Discuss
  5. The Centre State relations have acquired new dimensions in recent times due to several political parties being in power at the Centre and the States. (Second administrive, commission). Do you agree? Give reasons to support your arguments.

 Q2. 20+20+10 marks

“Public sector undertakings must learn to survive and be entrepreneurial, without assured government budgetary support.” In the light of the statement give your suggestions for strengthening their autonomy and reviving the health of sick public sector undertakings.

Indian administration is said to be characterised by its three features viz.Weberian structures, Kautilyan practice and Gandhian rhetoric. Examine the statement.

District collector is a legacy of the British Raj and has largely remained insulated from the demands of contemporary professionalism. Discuss

 Q3. 20+20+10 marks

Gender responsive budgeting has infused greater accountability of planning departments towards women empowerment programs. Examine the statement.

The Gubernatorial position of the Governor is comfortably placed in the fuzzy area between “withdrawal of the pleasure of the President” and “compelling reasons for removal.” Discuss with some recent examples.

Beneath the soft outer shell of democratic administrative framework lies unscathed the steel frame of Indian administration which has survived through ages. In the light of the statement, examine the relationship between bureaucracy and development in the last one decade.

Q4. 20+20+10 marks

Management of intergovernmental relations is as important as that of intergovernmental relations. Examine its impact upon the performance of the government.

How far do you agree with the view that National Development Council could resonate the demands of the state governments as long as planning commission is Subservient to it? Critically examine.

Critically examine the statement: “Thana (police station) as the last bastion of the waning British administrative legacy in India.”


PubAd: Paper-2 Section-B

Q5. (Compulsory) 150 words x 10 marks each x 5 = 50 marks

Discuss the changes in the powers of controller and auditor General of India, following a recent Supreme Court judgement concerning a private service provider. #Mrunalarticle=10 marks be counted under Bogus Marketing Propoganda.

Parliamentary committees bring about accountability and public expenditure. Discuss

Do you think that the role of Panchayati Raj should go beyond development Administration? Give reasons for your answer.

Police – public relations are a story of insincere efforts made both sides. Elaborate

From coalition government to one-party dominance is of the change that is bound to affect the governmental system. Explain why and how

 Q6. 20+20+10 marks

Assess the role of honest and upright civil servants in regulatory and development administration in India. Give examples to substantiate your arguments.

“Social auditing of flagship programmes of the Central government facilitates the performance of the Comptroller and Auditor-General.” Elaborate the statement with appropriate examples.

Explain the notion of one hundred ‘smart cities’ and its likely impact on India’s urbanization.


Q7. 20+20+10 marks

Elaborate the features of the grievance redressal mechanism of the civil services in India. Does this mechanism satisfy the objectives of its creation?

The 13th Finance Commission highlighted an indispensable need to improve the finances of rural and urban level bodies. Does this make local bodies more accountable in the discharge of their functions?

“Unimplemented reforms in administration weaken the administrative reforms process most.” Do you agree? Give your answer citing specific cases as illustrations.


Q8. 20+20+10 marks

Discuss the need for civil service neutrality in development administration. Suggest some measures for achieving and strengthening it in practice.

Supreme Court ruling on 31st October, 2013 in respect of bureaucracy’s functioning would help achieve good governance. Analyze this ruling and add your comments on it.

Do you think that the Central paramilitary police forces have proven more effective than the State police service? Give your answer objectively in a critical vein.

Mains 2015: Public Administration (Paper -1 & 2)

Exam Date: 23rd December 2015: Paper 1

Q1. Answer the following questions in about 1 50 words each: 1 0×5=50

  1. Waldo’s The Administrative State’ provides a fundamental challenge to some of the orthodox premises. Explain.
  2. Discuss how the Public Choice Theory promotes the concept of ‘Steering’ and undermines the concept of ‘Rowing’ in visualizing efficient and effective administration.
  3. “Delegated Legislation is a necessary evil.” Comment.
  4. Do you agree with the view that the charismatic approach of the mid-1970s is a “new version” of the Classical Trait Theory of Leadership? Give reasons.
  5. “The term policy implementation is in some respects preferable to the label public administration.” Argue.


a. “Globalisation has transformed the nature and character of State from traditional administrative Welfare State to a Corporate State.” Analyse the changes in the nature of public administration in this context.

  1. “Contemporary Organisational theory seems further afield of Chester Barnard’s Functions of the Executive than of organisational ecology.” Examine the statement in the light of ecological elements in Barnard’s thought.
    c. “PPPs serve too many parties and too many interests … to be focussed.” Identify in the context of the statement, the parties involved in Public-Private Partnerships and their conflicting aims.


a. “Follett’s work was not directed towards the resolution of the conflict of ideas, but towards the resolution of structural conflicts between workers and capitalists.” In the light of the statement critically evaluate Follett’s idea of dynamic administration. 20
b. “Information constitutes the life-blood of the functioning of an organisation.” Explain the utility and significance of communication in decision-making. 1 5

  1. “Legislative action is not subject to the rules of natural justice.” Explain the exceptions to the rule of natural justice.

a. “Right from the days of the ‘Peoples’ Charter’ to the new concept of `Precariat Charter’, the concept of Citizen’s Charter and its scope is constantly evolving.” Comment.

  1. “Weberian model of bureaucracy lacks emotional validity when applied to modern democratic administration.”

c. How far do you agree with the view that the growing influence of media comes in the way of agenda-setting by the Government?
Q5. Answer the following questions in about 1 50 words each : 1 0×5=50

  1. “Comparative Performance Measurement (CPM) bridges everyday work experience with the broader

horizons of comparativism.” Explain.

  1. Analyse the relevance of Whitleyism in contemporary employer — employee relationship.
  2. “No significant change can be made in the budgetary process without affecting the political process.” (Wildaysky). Analyse.
    d. “In the appreciative systems of policy makers, goals are subsidiary to norms and values.” (Vickers). Explain.
  3. Show in what way the Gender and Development approach differs from the Woman and Development approach.

a. “Administrative ethics is a process of independently critiquing decision standards, based on core social values that can be discovered, within reasonable organisational boundaries that can be defined, subject to the personal and professional accountability.” (Denhardt). Explain.

  1. “Lenin’s concept of Socialist management refers to directing the organisational development of Socialist society.” Explain.
    c. “Policy analysis is incomplete without taking into account policy delivery.” Argue.

a. How does Ferrel Heady rationalize the three stages of development in comparative administration?

  1. Distinguish between ‘Codes of Conduct’ and ‘Codes of Ethics’. Justify your answer.
  2. “E-Governance creates a direct relationship between the Citizen and the State.” In this context, explain the changing role of the elected representatives.

a. “The concept of political feasibility in policy alternative is a probabilistic concept and is related to each policy alternative.” In the context of the above statement analyse Dror’s contribution.

  1. “The position-classification attempts to establish a triangular relationship between duties and responsibilities, working conditions and qualification requirements.” Elucidate.
  2. “MIS, PERT and CPM have accelerated the process of reinventing 0 & M.” In the context of the above statement, explain the recent developments in managerial techniques.


2015: Paper-2:Section-A
Q1 . Attempt all of the following in about 1 50 words each: 1 0×5=50

  1. “Democracy within bureaucracy is likely to reduce its effectiveness.” Do you agree with this view? Argue your case.
    b. “District Collector’s role in the development process has been overemphasized.” Comment on the statement.
  2. Why has District Planning been marginalized in many States and remained prominent in a few States? Explain.
    d. “Ordinance-making power of the Executive needs to be suitably restrained.” Examine it critically.
  3. ‘Minimum government, maximum governance’ is not just a slogan but a philosophy of administration with enormous potentialities.” Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer.


a. To what extent has political culture influenced the administrative culture of India? Explain. 20

  1. Briefly discuss the main recommendations of the Punchhi Commission (201 0) on Centre-State relations for transforming Indian Federal System. 20
  2. As Dr. B. R. Ambedkar observed, “the text of the Constitution can provide the organs of the State, but the final outcome of the governance process depends on how it has operationalized by the political parties and people”. Elucidate the statement. 10.



  1. The objectives, approaches and organizational arrangements for decision-making of the NITI Aayog aim at restoring the federal character of the Indian polity. Explain.
  2. Explain fully how a balance can be struck between autonomy and accountability of India’s public enterprises.
  3. “Decentralized governance must serve as an instrument of realizing social change and social justice.” Comment on the statement.

a. Discuss the arguments for and against the National Judicial Appointments Commission Act, 2014.

  1. “In very recent time, the role of the State Governor is found to be more of diplomatic than administrative nature.” Comment on the statement with suitable examples.
  2. Comment on the recent changes in the approach and methodology of devolution of responsibilities and transfer of funds from the Union to the States.


Q5. Attempt all of the following in about 1 50 words each: 1 0X5=50

  1. Critically examine the concept of community policing as a tool for improving public-police relations.
  2. Explain how budget can be used as a political instrument.
  3. “Most Civil Servants in India are competent administrators, but they pay little attention to encourage people’s participation in decision-making.” Comment on the statement.
  4. Do you think that the functioning of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs), in practice, reflects genuine devolution of powers and resources? Give reasons for your answer.
  5. “Information Communication Technology (ICT) improves the quality of public service delivery, but fails to check bribery.” Comment.

a. “Excellent ideas but poor implementation have characterized the administrative reforms in India since Independence.” Critically examine the statement giving examples from the Union and State Governments.

  1. Do you agree that there has been a serious governance-deficit in development administration in India? Give reasons for your answer and add your suggestions.
  2. What are the major concerns of the Second Administrative Reforms Commission on Civil Service reforms? Indicate the current status of their implementation.


a. How do the Union Government policies on Smart and AMRUT Cities address the problems of management of urban development? Explain.

  1. Discuss the significance and role of the Central Paramilitary Forces in maintaining law and order and countering insurgency as well as terrorism.
  2. Discuss the major highlights of the reforms introduced from time-to-time in Central Civil Services Conduct Rules and add your own comments.


a. “Municipal governance in India is not sufficiently prepared to meet the challenges of frequent natural disasters.” Elucidate the statement and add your own suggestions.

b. Discuss critically the salient features of the National Investigation Agency (NIA) regarding its purposes and jurisdiction.
c. Argue the case for and against creating Indian Public Enterprises and Industrial Service for boosting the moribund public sector in India.

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